Turmeric Cultivation Project Report

 Turmeric Cultivation

Turmeric  is native to Asia and India. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric are used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is a very important spice in India, which produces nearly the whole worlds crop and uses 80% of it. Presently, it is cultivated in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia, Africa, Peru and the West Indies. Turmeric usage dates back nearly 4000 years, to the Vedic culture in India, when turmeric was the principal spice and also of religious significance. It is much revered by Hindus and associated with fertility. In todays India, turmeric is still added to nearly every dish be it meat or vegetables. Turmeric has been used in Indian systems of medicine for a long time. It is listed in an Assyrian herbal dating from about 600 BC and is also mentioned by Dioscorides. In Malaysia, a paste of turmeric is spread on the mothers abdomen and on the umbilical cord after childbirth, not only to warn off evil spirits, but also for its medicinal value. Both the East and the West have held its medicinal properties in high regard. Rhizomes are the used plant part. Fresh turmeric leaves are used in some regions of Indonesia as flavouring. In fresh state, the rootstock has a aromatic and spicy fragrance, which by drying gives way to a more medicinal aroma. On storing, the smell rather quickly changes to earthy and unpleasant. Similarly, the colour of ground turmeric tends to fade if the spice is stored too long. It is called Indian saffron because of its orange yellow colour. In some languages, the names of turmeric just mean yellow root; English turmeric derives from the (now obsolete) French terre merite (Latin terra merita, meritorious earth), probably because ground turmeric resembles mineral pigments (ocher). The genus name Curcuma is of the same origin, being a Latinization of Arabic kurkum meaning saffron. Botany Turmeric is a herbaceous perennial with a rhizome from which arises tufts of large, broad, lanceolate, bright green leaves acute at both ends. The plant grows up to 60 to 90 cm high. Leafy shoots are erect bearing 6 10 leaves with the leaf sheath forming a pseudostem. The ligule is a small lobe (1mm long). The sheath near the ligule has ciliate margins. The inflorescence is a cylindrical spike, 10 55 cm long, 5 7 cm wide and terminal on the leafy shoot. The flowers are yellow or pale yellow, borne in a spike. They arise from two buds situated in the axils of bracts and mature successively. Bracts are greenish white; the uppermost tinged with pink. The bracteoles are thin and elliptic. The calyx is short, unequally toothed and split nearly half way down on one side. The corolla is tubular at the base and the upper half s cup shaped. There are two lateral staminodes. The lip or labellum is obovate. The ovary is inferior and trilocular with a slender style held by anther lobes and passing between them. Fruits are seldom. The primary tuber at the base of the aerial stem is ellipsoidal bearing many rhizomes; straight or little curved, with secondary branches in two rows and further tertiary branches, the whole forming a dense clump. Rhizomes have a distinctive taste and smell, brownish and scaly outside and the inside is bright orange in colour. The roots are fleshy, often ending in a swollen starchy tuber. Culinary use Turmeric is a very unique and versatile natural plant product combining the properties of (a) a spice or flavourant, (b) a colourant of brilliant yellow dye, (3) a cosmetic and (4) a drug. It is mainly a spice that the colouring properties are usually more important than its flavour attributes. Turmeric is the major ingredient in curries and curry powders, contributing flavour as well as the characteristic yellow colour. Medicinal use Traditionally turmeric is being used in Indian System of medicine. It has several medicinal properties like stomachic, carnivative, tonic, blood purifier, vermicide and antiseptic. The active constituent of turmeric, curcumin, has been shown to have a wide range of therapeutic effects. Because it is a strong antioxidant, it protects against free radical damage.  The demand of spice  in the developed countries is increasing day by day as more and more spicy snacks are being introduced by fast food chains with standardised tastes. The spice oils and oleoresins are specially suitable for such snacks in that they can be used very conveniently (without any handling of the raw spice like ginger, chilli, onion, etc.) and producing a standardised effect on taste. This is the reason practically all plants in India, numbering to more than twenty five are cent percent exporting their products to these nations. The demand is increasing and more and more plants are being commissioned for 100% export.

1.       Introduction
2.        Properties
3.       Turmeric Plant
4.       Production
5.       Climate and soil
6.       Planting Techniques
7.       Present Indian Market Position
8.       Demand of Turmeric
9.       Process of Turmeric Plantation
10.     Suppliers Planting Materials
11.     Cost/Rates of Planting Materials
12.     Requirement of Labour
13.    Personnel Management
14.    Skilled & Unskilled Labour
15.    Requirement of Land Area
16.     Rates of the Land
17.     Built up Area,
18.     Cost of Raw Materials
19.     Cost of Land & Building
20.    Cost Machineries
21.    Fixed Capital Investment
22.    Working Capital
23.     Project Cost
24.     Capital Formation
25.    Cost of Production
26.     Profitability Analysis
27.    Break Even Point,
28.    Cash Flow Statement for 5 Years
29.     Depreciation Chart
30.     Projected Balance Sheet
31.    Land Man Ratio etc.

Project Reports cover all the aspects of business, from analysing the market, confirming availability of various necessities such as plant & machinery, raw materials to forecasting the financial requirements. The scope of the report includes assessing market potential, negotiating with collaborators, investment decision making, corporate diversification planning etc. in a very planned manner by formulating detailed manufacturing techniques and forecasting financial aspects by estimating the cost of raw material, formulating the cash flow statement, projecting the balance sheet etc.

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